Scope of the School:Properties of materials strongly depend on their structure.Diffraction techniques and Crystallography are traditionallyrecognized as the ideal nanoprobe to reconstruct and “image” the atomic arrangement of ordered systems. The advent of highly brilliant and coherent radiation sources along with advanced computational methods have widened new, appealing horizons of diffraction-related methodologies to fields traditionally seen as the “world” of other techniques. In fact, a growing attention has been devoted to the potential of hard X-Ray to image non periodic objects or to investigate, at different length scales, composite and supramolecular systems showing complex, hierarchical architectures. The purpose of the School is to run a thread through different Scattering and Imaging Techniques, each able to investigate the structure of materials at different length scales, from the micro to the atomic level and beyond. Basic theoretical principles will be treated for each technique and several fields of application will be presented: Chemistry, Physics, Material Science, Mineralogy, Biologyand Medicine.Topics:Elastic Scattering from MatterLight ScatteringX-Ray Small Angle and Wide Angle ScatteringElectron and Neutron DiffractionX-Ray TomographyElectron MicroscopyX-Ray Coherent Diffraction MicroscopyMicrodiffractionCharge DensityTime Resolved Crystallography