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Materials Science

Coordinated by Paolo Scardi Paolo.Scardi@unitn.it

Materials Science in Italy has a long tradition as an interdisciplinary area of chemistry, physics and engineering research. In the last 20 years the complete maturity of this discipline was testified by the creation of dedicated research centres, departments and consortiums, and by the institution of university degrees in Materials Engineering and in Materials Science. The present report only mentions some Italian research groups most directly engaged in the development of crystallographic methodologies applied to materials science and technology, without trying to represent the vast category of users of crystallographic methods and related analytical techniques, or the even larger community of Italian materials scientists.

In Brescia [1] the following researches are carried out: (i) Investigation of thin films and multilayers for optical, catalytic, and sensor applications; (ii) Optimization of structural and innovative techniques to investigate metallurgical problems. (iii) Synthesis and structural, chemical, and nanomechanical characterisation of magnetic multilayers and patterned magnetic nanostructures.

In Modena [2] researches are carried out on: (i) Crystal structure and properties of cation exchanged natural zeolites and clay minerals for environmental protection and industrial applications; (ii) Quantitative phase analysis by the Rietveld method of oxide mixtures, clays and glass-ceramics; amorphous/crystalline fractions; (iii) High temperature/high pressure dynamic studies of zeolites by in-situ X-ray synchrotron light (diffraction and spectroscopy) and ab-initio computational methods.

In Trento [3] the following topics are investigated: (i) Residual stress and texture analysis in thin films and coatings: new analytical methodologies based on laboratory and synchrotron radiation diffraction techniques; (ii) Microstructure and lattice defects in nanocrystalline and severely deformed materials by diffraction line profile analysis: new methods for ab-initio modelling of the whole powder diffraction pattern.

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Residual stress – texture θ-2 θ/ψ map. TiN on steel substrate. P. Scardi & Y.H.Dong, J. Mater. Res. 16 (2001) 233-242

In Bologna [4] researches are carried out on: (i) Isotactic polymers by WAXS/SAXS (Polybutene-1, Ethylene, Polypropylene, Polyvinylchloride): evolution of microstructure and morphology as a function of catalysis conditions; (ii) High Molecular Weight Polyethylene polymerized in different conditions: correlation between structural and morphological parameters and high-modulus properties of the materials.

In Venice [5] the microstructure of materials is analysed by powder diffraction and small angle scattering: amorphous, partially crystalline and polycrystalline systems containing nanostructured phases are studied. The quantitative and qualitative analysis of small fractions of supported metal clusters with size of few nanometres are also investigated.

In Pavia [6] structure-properties relationships in polycrystalline doped materials are investigated.

By the Research Centre in Novara [7] the following topics are investigated: (i) Characterization by diffraction methods, using laboratory and synchrotron sources, of powders of heterogeneous catalysts used in oxidation reactions of H2O2 under mild conditions; (ii) Application of Full Profile Fitting procedures to study crystallographic aspects related to the catalytic performance.

foto 12
Structure of faujasite, where the location of cation sites Na and Rb are shown. (Marra GL, Fitch AN, Zecchina A, Ricchiardi G, Salvalaggio M, Bordiga S, Lamberti C., J. Phys. Chem. B, 101(50), 1997, 10653-10660)

In Rome [8] time resolved in-situ structural and morphological investigations are performed on magnetic nanostructured and high Tc superconducting thin films, organic gas sensors, electrochemical and fuel cells and amorphous alloys undergoing phase transitions. Energy Dispersive X-ray Diffraction and Reflectometry are also used.

In Udine [9] researches are carried out on: (i) Diffraction study of polymer (poly-organolphosphazenes and polydimethylsiloxane) structures from polycrystalline samples; (ii) Synthesis and crystallographic and microstructural characterization of oxide based ceramic materials

By the Politecnico in Milano [10] the structure, morphology, crystallization and mesophases of synthetic organic polymers, oligomers and model compounds and the self assembly of new organic materials using specific intermolecular interactions are studied together with organic matrix nanocomposites with inorganic silicates.

By the University in Milano [11] the following topics are investigated: (i) Physical properties and crystal structures of materials and industrial minerals at high temperature and pressure, with particular emphasis to thermal expansion and vibrational properties; (ii) Chemical reactivity at crystal surfaces and kinetics of nucleation and crystal growth, studied by atomic force microscopy and in situ synchrotron radiation techniques.

At Milano Bicocca [12] materials science and theoretical methodologies are investigated. neutron diffraction studies of the ion mobility in inorganic ionic conductors as well as first-principles studies of phase transitions and physical properties of crystals are carried out.

In Cagliari [13] the following topics are considered: (i) Ionic coordination in water solutions and in glasses by X-ray diffraction and EXAFS; (ii) Structural investigation of nanomaterials by XRD, TEM, HREM and EXAFS

[1] Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Univ. Brescia depero@ing.unibs.it

[2] Dept. of Earth Sciences, Univ. Modena gualtieri.alessandro@unimore.it

[3] Dept. of Materials Engineering and Industrial Technologies, Univ. Trento Paolo.Scardi@unitn.it

[4] Dept. of Chemistry, Univ. Bologna ferracin@ciam.unibo.it

[5] Laboratory of Science and Technology of Materials, Univ. “ca’ Foscari” Venezia benedett@unive.it

[6] Dept. of Physical Chemistry, Univ. Pavia and IENI – CNR vincenzo.massarotti@unipv.it

[7] Polimeri Europa S.p.A, Centro Ricerche Novara, Istituto Guido Donegani gianluigi.marra@polimerieuropa.com

[8] Istituto di Struttura della Materia-CNR, Area della Ricerca, Tor Vergata, Roma barbara.paci@ism.cnr.it

[9] Dept. of Chemical Science and Technology, Univ. Udine sergio.bruckner@uniud.it

[10] Dept. of Chemistry, Materials and Chemical Engineering, Politecnico di Milano valdo.meille@polimi.it

[11] Dept of Earth Sciences, Univ Milano artioli@iummix.terra.unimi.it

[12] Dept. of Materials Science, Univ. Milano Bicocca catti@mater.unimib.it

[13] Dept. of Chemistry, Univ. Cagliari giaime@unica.it